Taylor Fravel | People

Taylor Fravel headshot
Arthur and Ruth Sloan Professor of Political Science
Director, MIT Security Studies Program


M. Taylor Fravel is the Arthur and Ruth Sloan Professor of Political Science and Director of the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Taylor studies international relations, with a focus on international security, China, and East Asia. His books include Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China’s Territorial Disputes, (Princeton University Press, 2008) and Active Defense: China's Military Strategy Since 1949 (Princeton University Press, 2019). His other publications have appeared in International Security, Foreign Affairs, Security Studies, International Studies Review, The China Quarterly, The Washington Quarterly, Journal of Strategic Studies, Armed Forces & Society, Current History, Asian Survey, Asian Security, China Leadership Monitor, and Contemporary Southeast Asia. Taylor is a graduate of Middlebury College and Stanford University, where he received his PhD. He also has graduate degrees from the London School of Economics and Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar. In 2016, he was named an Andrew Carnegie Fellow by the Carnegie Corporation. Taylor has been a member of the board of directors of the National Committee on U.S.-China Relations and serves as the Principal Investigator for the Maritime Awareness Project.



Maritime Awareness Project



Publications|Selected Publications

M. Taylor Fravel, "China's Misunderstood Nuclear Expansion," Foreign Affairs, November 10, 2023 (With Henrik Stålhane Hiim and Magnus Langset Trøan)

M. Taylor Fravel, "China's Potential Lessons from Ukraine for Conflict over Taiwan," The Washington Quarterly Vol. 46, No. 3 (2023)

M. Taylor Fravel, "The Myth of Chinese Diversionary War," Foreign Affairs, September 15, 2023 

M. Taylor Fravel, "Two Paths: Why States Join or Avoid China's Belt and Road Initiative," Global Studies Quarterly Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 2023) (With Eleanor Atkins, Raymond Wang, Nick Ackert, and Sihao Huang)

M. Taylor Fravel, “Managing United States-China university relations and risks,” Science Vol. 380, No. 6642 (April 2023) (With Richard Lester, Lily Tsai, Suzanne Berger, Peter Fisher, David Goldston, Yasheng Huang, and Daniela Rus)

M. Taylor Fravel, “The dynamics of an entangled security dilemma: China’s changing nuclear posture,” International Security Vol. 47, No. 4 (Spring 2023) (With Henrik Stålhane Hiim and Magnus Langset Trøan)

M. Taylor Fravel, "How to Avoid a War Over Taiwan," Foreign Affairs, October 13, 2022 (with Thomas J. Christensen, Bonnie S. Glaser, Andrew J. Nathan, and Jessica Chen Weiss)

M. Taylor Fravel, "How Much Risk Should the United States Run in the South China Sea," International Security Vol. 47, No. 2 (Fall 2022) (with Charles L. Glaser)

M. Taylor Fravel, "China’s Military Strategy for a ‘New Era’: Some Change, More Continuity, and Tantalizing Hints," Journal of Strategic Studies (March 2022) (with Joel Wuthnow)

M. Taylor Fravel, “China engages the Arctic: a great power in a regime complex,” Asian Security Vol. 18, No 2 (2022) (with Kathryn Lavelle and Liselotte Odgaard)

M. Taylor Fravel, “Stormy Seas: The South China Sea in US-China Relations,” in Avery Goldstein and Jacques de Lisle, eds., After Engagement: Dilemmas in U.S.-China Security Relations, (Washington D.C.: Brookings, 2021) (with Kacie Miura)

M. Taylor Fravel, “A “China in the World” Paradigm for Scholarship,” Studies in Comparative International Development Vol. 55, No. 1 (March 2021) (with Melanie Manion and Yuhua Wang)
Task Force on US-China Policy, China's New Direction: Challenges and Opportunities for U.S. Policy, Asia Society Center on US-China Relations, June 2021

M. Taylor Fravel, "China's 'World-Class Military Ambitions: Origins and Implications," The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 43, No. 1 (Spring 2020)
M. Taylor Fravel, "Stability in a secondary strategic direction: China and the border dispute with India after 1962," in Kanti Bajpai, Selina Ho, and Manjari Chaterjee Miller, eds. Routledge Handbook of China-India Relations, (New York: Routledge, 2020)

M. Taylor Fravel, "Dangerous Confidence? Chinese Views on Nuclear Escalation," International Security, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Fall 2019) (with Fiona S. Cunningham)
M. Taylor Fravel, "Hearing on 'A World Class' Military: Assessing China's Global Military Ambitions," Testimony before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, June 20, 2019.

M. Taylor Fravel, "Shifts in Warfare and Party Unity: Explaining China's Changes in Military Strategy," International Security, Vol. 43, No. 3 (Winter 2017/18)

M. Taylor Fravel, “Threading the Needle: The South China Sea Disputes and U.S.-China Relations,” in Robert Ross and Øystein Tsunjo, eds., Strategic Adjustment and the Rise of China: Power and Politics in East Asia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2017)

M. Taylor Fravel, “Qualitative investigation of theoretical models: the value of process tracing,” Journal of Theoretical Politics Vol. 29, No. 3 (2017) (with Peter Lorentzen and Jack Paine)

For a complete list of publications






TVBS, September 21, 2022, “Taylor Fravel Shares Insights Into China. Taiwan, and U.S. Upcoming Moves.”

The China Project, August 9, 2022, “China's Show of Force & Fury: Military Drills Encircling Taiwan, Explained.”

NPR, All Things Considered, August 8, 2022, “China ends series of live fire military drills around the island of Taiwan.”

NPR, The World, August 4, 2022, “What China wants from these war-games.”

Real Vision, August 2, 2022, “Pelosi Goes to Taiwan.”

DW, August 2, 2022, “Sea drills around Taiwan won't be China's only response.”

CNN, October 18, 2021, "Report: China tested nuclear-capable hypersonic missile in August."

The World (GBH/PRX public radio) September 16, 2021, "The US, UK and Australia announce a new security pact."

The World (GBH/PRX public radio), June 15, 2021, "For the first time, NATO is Focusing on China."

NPR, All Things Considered, March 19, 2021, "Officials from the US and China have met for the first time since Biden took office."

The Global Eye, CNBC-TV18, February 18, 2021, "India-China Border Breakthrough."

ETV Bharat, July 11, 2020, "Exclusive: Chinese claims on Galwan not new, says MIT Professor Fravel."

Newstrack, IndiaToday television, June 23, 2020, "India-China Standoff: Prof. M. Taylor Fravel Speaks on the False Claim of Galwan by China."

StratNewsGlobal, June 23, 2020, "Noughts and Crosses: India-China LAC."

CNBC, June 5, 2020, "Pan-India News 18 poll on India-China standoff: here's what it means according to experts."

CNN, May 27, 2020, "Resolving LAC Face-Off."

CNBC, January 7, 2018, "North Korea may suddenly want talks because of how powerful it has become."

WBUR, Morning Edition, July 13, 2016, Will Hague Tribunal's South China Sea Ruling Inflame U.S-China Tensions?


"Active Defense: China’s Military Strategy Since 1949," Irregular Warfare Podcast, December 29, 2023. 

"The Ballpark podcast Extra Innings: China's Belt and Road with Professor Taylor Fravel," London School of Economics, February 13, 2023.  

"The Impact of Covid-19 on China’s Military: A Conversation with M. Taylor Fravel," CSIS China Power Project, August 31, 2021.

"Conversation Six podcast on the prospects for India-China relations after the February disengagement around Pangong Tso," April 19, 2021, with Suhasini Haidar.

"Sovereignty and the Seas: Maritime Disputes in East Asia," National Bureau of Asian Research, February 5, 2021.

"China, India, and Sovereignty in the Himalayas," CATO Institute podcast, hosted by Emma Ashford, October 6, 2020.

"The Galwan Valley Clash and China's Approach to Sovereignty Disputes: A Conversation with M. Taylor Fravel," CSIS podcast hosted by Bonnie S. Glaser, August 18, 2020.

"Fingers, Boots, and Lines: Understanding the 2020 India-China Border Tensions," The Diplomat, Asia Geopolitics podcast hosted by Ankit Panda, June 5, 2020.

"M. Taylor Fravel on China's Modern Military Strategy in Historical Perspective," National Committee on US-China Relations (NCUSR) Interviews. May 1, 2020.

"Military Strategy and Politics in the PRC: A Conversation with Taylor Fravel," Sinica podcast (Supchina), July 3, 2019.

"Jaw-Jaw: A Look at the PLA's History of Planning for War with Taylor Fravel," War on the Rocks, June 11, 2019, with Brad Carson.


Panelist, "Center for a New American Security Releases 'India-China Border Tensions and US Strategy in the Indo-Pacific Report," Center for a New American Security (CNAS), March 30, 2023. 

Panelist, "'Friends with No Limits?" The Future of China-Russia Relations," Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University, March 2, 2023. 

Interviewed by Isaac Chotiner in "What's Behind the Chinese Spy Balloon," The New Yorker, February 18, 2023. 

Panelist, "Competition & Cooperation in Security, Ideas and Rules," Coexistence 2.0 Conference, Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University, November 18, 2022. 

Panelist, "Starr Forum: Xi Jinping's Third Term: Challenges for the United States," MIT Center for International Studies (CIS), November 17, 2022. 

Panelist, "Xi's New Global Security Initiative," CSIS Interpret: China, July 14, 2022. 

Panelist, “The Military Dimensions of the Fourth Taiwan Strait Crisis,” CSIS China Power Project, August 22, 2022.

Video interview, "China and India need to reimagine what is possible on the border," The Print, April 22, 2022.

Panelist in seminar on The Dynamics of a Changing Arctic, udenrigspolitik.dk. His topic: China's Role in the Arctic. August 19, 2021.

Webinar speaker, "China's Military Strategy," Centre for Land Warfare Studies," June 29, 2021.

Panelist, "One year after Galwan: the road ahead for Sino-India Relations," Centre for Policy Research, June 17, 2021.

"China's Military Strategy in the New Era," Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies, Harvard University, April 25, 2021.

Video interview: "China Miscalculated in Provoking a Standoff with India," TheWire, April 5, 2021.

Video interview: "What's Really Driving China's Strategic Objectives?" RealVision, March 2, 2021.

Testimony before the US-China Economic and Security Review Commission, January 28, 2021. The topic: hearing on the "US-China Relations at the Chinese Communist Party's Centennial."

Participant in online debate: "China's Power: Up for Debate," Center for Strategic & International Studies, December 9, 2020.

Video interview: "Creating Ladakh UT, Amit Shah’s Aksai Chin remarks got China’s attention, says MIT professor," ThePrint, July 18, 2020.

Participant in webinar: "Face-off in the Himalayas: China's Active Defense and India's Reaction," The Jamestown Foundation, July 7, 2020.

Interviewed in "Experts Explain: What triggered recent China border moves?" The India Express, May 27, 2020.

Participant, US China Series Virtual Conference: National Security, SupChina, May 8, 2020.


M. Taylor Fravel "China’s nuclear arsenal is growing. What does that mean for U.S.-China relations?" Washington Post Monkey Cage, November 11, 2021 (with Fiona Cunningham).

M. Taylor Fravel, "China and India are pulling back from the brink," Washington Post, March 3, 2021.

M. Taylor Fravel (with Fiona Cunningham), "China's nuclear arsenal is growing. What does that mean for US-China Relations?" Washington Post Monkey Cage blog, November 11, 2021.

M. Taylor Fravel, "China's Sovereignty Obsession: Beijing’s Need to Project Strength Explains the Border Clash With India," Foreign Affairs, June 26, 2020.

Participant, "Has COVID-19 Changed How China's Leaders Approach National Security?" A ChinaFile conversation, June, 3, 2020.

M. Taylor Fravel, "Why are China and India skirmishing at their border?" Washington Post Monkey Cage blog, June 2, 2020.

M. Taylor Fravel, "Does the global pandemic open new South China Sea opportunities for Beijing?" Washington Post Monkey Cage blog, May 7, 2020.

M. Taylor Fravel, "Mike Pompeo criticized China for not respecting its neighbors’ territorial integrity. What’s the story?" commentary, Washington Post Monkey Cage blog, February 21, 2020.


Quoted in "Revealed: China's Deception on Theater Nuclear Capabilities Risks Taiwan Invasion," BNN, March 3, 2024. 

Quoted in "China appoints new defense minister after a months-long vacancy," NPR, December 30, 2023. 

Quoted in "New Pentagon report claims China now has over 500 operational nuclear warheads," NPR, October 19, 2023. 

Quoted in "Don't be Distracted by Alarmism Over a Diversionary WarAntiWar Blog, September 15, 2023. 

Quoted in "Can the Philippines Peacefully Settle Territorial Disputes With China in West Philippine Sea?Eurasia Review, August 23, 2023.

Quoted in "Military shake-up: Power play or strategy shift for ChinaDT Next, August 11, 2023. 

Quoted in "Chinese troops vow they are willing to die in fight for TaiwanTask and Purpose, August 8, 2023. 

Quoted in "Spotlight on military corruption in China as Xi sacks nuclear force commander & deputy at onceThePrint, August 7, 2023. 

Quoted in "China replaces nuclear force leadership in surprise shake-upNBC News, August 2, 2023. 

Quoted in "Xi Jinping overhauls leadership of China's elite nuclear forceTimes of India, August 2, 2023. 

Quoted in "China Replaces Military Commander Days After Removing Foreign MinisterWall Street Journal, August 1, 2023. 

Quoted in "A purge at the highest ranks of China's missle forcesThe China Project, August 1, 2023. 

Quoted in "China Unveils New Head of Rocket Force Amid Reported ProbesBloomberg, July 31, 2023. 

Quoted in "China Replaces Qin Gang as Foreign Minister a Month After He Was Last Seen in PublicThe Wire, July 25, 2023. 

Quoted in "Yellen says visit helps put US-China ties on 'surer-footing'" Beiyi Seow, AFP News, July 9, 2023. 

Quoted in "Top U.S. diplomat meets Chinese foreign minister in bid to tamp down soaring tensions" Jesse Johnson, The Japan Times, June 18, 2023. 

Quoted in "The top U.S. envoy is bound for China with a low bar for a successful visit" Jesse Johnson, The Japan Times, June 17, 2023. 

Quoted in "China's Caribbean Sea" Francis P. Sempa, Real Clear Defense, May 13, 2023. 

Quoted in "3 Nuclear Superpowers, Rather than 2, Usher In a New Strategic Era" David E. Sanger, William J. Broad, and Chris Buckley, The New York Times, April 19, 2023. 

Quoted in "Will China invade Taiwan soon?" Rigoberto Tiglao, Manila Times, April 12, 2023. 

Quoted in "Understanding the India China Border" Manoj Joshi, Hindustan Times, April 8, 2023. 

Quoted in "China's Spy Balloons Float over the World" Julieta Pelcastre, Dialogo Americans, March 22, 2023. 

Quoted in "Don't Panic About Taiwan" Jessica Chen Weiss, Foreign Affairs, March 21, 2023. 

Quoted in "China Has Created Hypersonic Tech That Is Twice As Powerful As Before" Wonderful Engineering, February 20, 2023. 

Quoted in "Man Behind China's 'Dream Come True' Boosted Balloon ProgramBloomberg, February 17, 2023. 

Quoted in "China's Balloon Dispute Aims Attention at Xi's LeadershipNew York Times, February 6, 2023. 

Quoted in "Biden's Timing on Chinese Balloon Takedown May Work in His FavorBloomberg, February 4, 2023. 

Quoted in "Anthony Blinken postpones China trip after Beijing confirms balloon spotted over Montana is its propertySouth China Morning Post, February 3, 2023. 

Quoted in "Why Japan and South Korea Are Arming UpSlate, January 31, 2023. 

Quoted in "US-China relationship in a fog of warThe Edge Singapore, January 5, 2023. 

Quoted in "Sloppy' US Talk on China's Threat Worries Some Skeptical ExpertsBloomberg, November 3, 2022. 

Quoted in "Xi Rewards Combat-Ready China Generals Amid Taiwan TensionsBloomberg, October 24, 2022. 

Quoted in "Xi Jinping's 20th Party Congress victory lap bodes ill for U.S.-China relationsPolitico, October 20, 2022. 

Quoted in "America and China Don't Need to Knock Each Other Out to WinNew York Times, October 19, 2022. 

Quoted in "The Ukraine Crisis and China-India RelationsThe Jamestown Foundation, October 19, 2022. 

Quoted in  “’Xi re-election bid, less effective vaccines’: Why China’s sticking to draconian zero-Covid policy” The Print, September 30, 2022.

Quoted in “Rumours swirl about coup against President Xi Jingping. Wishful thinking, say China experts” The Print, September 25, 2022.   

Quoted in “Some progress in the border dispute between China and India” The Economist, September 22, 2022. 

Quoted in “Gaffe or not, Biden's Taiwan defense remarks stir confusion” The Japan Times, September 20, 2022. 

Quoted in “China’s median line violations suggest Taiwan ‘decapitation’ rehearsal” Politico, September 1, 2022. 

Quoted in “China’s show of force over Taiwan a chance to test military coordination but results unclear: analysts” South China Morning Post, August 23, 2022. 

Quoted in “Panel: ‘Protracted’ Taiwan Crisis Will ‘Percolate for Months’” USNI News, August 22, 2022. 

Quoted in “How the crisis over Taiwan will change US-China relations” The Economist, August 11, 2022. 

Quoted in “China Seizes on Pelosi Visit to Set ‘New Normal’ for Taiwan” Bloomberg, August 8, 2022. 

Quoted in “China’s Military Exercises Showcase Modern Fighting Force Preparing for Possible War in the Taiwan Strait” Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2022. 

Quoted in “China’s military operations around Taiwan after Pelosi visit show intent to change status quo: US” South China Morning Post, August 4, 2022. 

Quoted in “China launches military exercises around Taiwan after Pelosi’s visit” Washington Post, August 4, 2022. 

Quoted in “China sends missiles flying over Taiwan” The Economist, August 4, 2022. 

Quoted in “Why Nancy Pelosi’s visit has brought China’s annexation of Taiwan on the radar” India Narrative, August 4, 2022. 

Quoted in “緊張激化を承知で訪台強行、ペロシ氏の評価は? 「レガシー築いた」「衝突の可能性高まる」” Tokyo Shimbun, August 4, 2022. 

Quoted in “Pelosi becomes highest-ranking U.S. official to visit Taiwan in 25 years” The Japan TImes, August 3, 2022. 

Quoted in “China Signals Plan to Launch Missiles Over Taiwan in a Dramatic, Troubling Escalation” US News and World Report, August 3, 2022. 

Quoted in “Experts doubt China is gearing up to invade Taiwan under the guise of training” Task and Purpose, August 3, 2022. 

Quoted in “As Pelosi Leaves Taiwan, China’s Military Looms Larger” Wall Street Journal, August 3, 2022. 

Quoted in “China Rattles a Much Bigger Saber as It Prepares Live-Fire Drills Around Taiwan” Wall Street Journal, August 3, 2022. 

Quoted in “Nancy Pelosi says US will not abandon Taiwan as China threatens ‘targeted military operations’ amid her visit” Evening Standard, August 3, 2022. 

Quoted in “Pelosi arrives in Taiwan vowing U.S. commitment; China enraged” Reuters, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “China vows to encircle Taiwan with military drills in response to Pelosi’s visit” Politico, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “China Plans Four Days of Military Drills in Areas Encircling Taiwan” Bloomberg, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi arrives in Taiwan, defying Beijing’s warnings” South China Morning Post, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “Nancy Pelosi touches down in Taiwan” SupChina, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “Chinese live-fire exercises commence around Taiwan as US warships deploy” Washington Examiner, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “Nancy Pelosi visits Taiwan, angering China, which warns she's 'playing with fire'” USA Today, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “China could fire missiles in Taiwan Strait over potential Pelosi visit: White House” Taiwan News, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in "Forceful China response to Pelosi could backfire: Academic” Focus Taiwan, August 2, 2022. 

Quoted in “Taiwan says Pelosi to land soon, as China warns US will 'pay the price' for visit” The Straits TImes, August 1, 2022. 

Quoted in “Pelosi hands Xi ‘strong incentive’ for retaliation as US Speaker spotted jetting to Taiwan” Express, July 30, 2022. 

Quoted in “Pelosi’s Taiwan visit will inflame US-China crisis” Financial Times, July 29, 2022. 

Quoted in “Pelosi’s Taiwan visit will inflame US-China crisis, analysts warn” Los Angeles Times, July 28, 2022. 

Quoted in "U.S. turns the screws on Solomon Islands to counter China," Politico, April 28, 2022.

Quoted in "U.N., IOC and sponsors under fire as Beijing Games begin" Politico, February 3, 2022

Quoted in "As Putin heads to Beijing, Russia and China’s stronger ties are a headache for the U.S." Washington Post, February 1, 2022

Quoted in "China Plays the Waiting Game on the Russia-Ukraine Crisis" World Politics Review, January 19, 2022

Quoted in "China steps up construction along disputed Bhutan border" Reuters, January 12, 2022.

Quoted in "Thinking about the role of time in grand strategy.Washington Post, November 23, 2021.

Quoted in "Who’s afraid of China’s nukes?Asia Times, November 23, 2021.

Quoted in "No, Neocons, China Is Not About to Invade TaiwanNew Republic, November 19, 2021

Quoted in "Pentagon, Congress increasingly worried about the rise of Chinese military," Fox News, November 10, 2021.

Quoted in "Will China really invade Taiwan “in the next six years,” as one senior admiral warned?" Slate, November 9, 2021.

Quoted in "China’s test of hypersonic vehicle is part of a program to rapidly expand strategic and nuclear systems," The Washington Post, October 19, 2021.

Quoted in "China's reported hypersonic weapon test raises security concerns," ABC News, October 19, 2021.

Quoted in "The new cold war panic," Axios, October 19, 2021.

Quoted in "China tests new space capability with hypersonic missile," Financial Times, October 16, 2021.

Quoted in "How close did Chinese military jets really get to Taiwan?" Slate, October 6, 2021.

Quoted in "Taiwan and China: line that Biden must tread is finer than ever," The Guardian, October 5, 2021.

Quoted in "9/11, 20 years later: did the the tragedy give US-China relations a respite?" South China Morning Post, September 2, 2021.

Quoted in "US leaders say China and Russia's military ties are 'phony,' but there still isn't much they can do about them," Business Insider, June 23, 2021.

Quoted in "Alas and a LAC - The Sino-Indian border a year on," sify.com, June 22, 2021.

Quoted in "Ladakh standoff: Defining reality check," The Times of India, June 20, 2021.

Quoted in "US is misleading in its assessment of China's Taiwan threat," Financial Times, May 5, 2021.

Quoted in "India-China Border Row: India Continues to Upgrade Border Infrastructure As Chinese PLA Looks to Pre-Empt India," The EurAsian Times, May 4, 2021.

Quoted in "The mysterious user editing a global open-source map in China's favor," restoftheworld.org, March 29, 2021.

Quoted in "How India stood its ground and forced China to end Pangong Tso aggression," ThePrint, February 12, 2021.

Quoted in "How Beijing Has Adopted Its South China Sea Strategy In the Himalayas Resulting in a Massive India-China Clash," The EurAsian Times, November 30, 2020.

Quoted in "Beijing Takes Its South China Sea Strategy to the Himalayas," New York Times, November 27, 2020.

Quoted in "‘The most secure’ election; Syria ‘shell games’; China’s new joint ops doctrine; And a bit more." Defense One Brief, November 13, 2020.

Quoted in "Tibet’s shadow looms over Himalayan stand-off," Financial Times.

Quoted in "India and China are taking new risks along their border. It will be hard to restore peace." Washington Post Monkey Cage blog, September 16, 2020.

Quoted in "China’s Stealth Fighter Shot Down 17 Simulated Enemies—All In An Effort To Frighten The Indians," Forbes.com, September 15, 2020.

Quoted in "China's Nuclear Buildup Changes U.S. Defense Strategies,' Bloomberg.com, September 7, 2020.

Quoted in "The old scars remain: Sino-Indian war of 1967," The Telegraph online, September 4, 2020.

Quoted in "China Fires Missiles Into South China Sea, Sending U.S. a Message," New York Times, August 27, 2020.

Quoted in "China's Draft Pact for Everest Height Announcement With Nepal Raises Eyebrows in India," The Wire, August 21, 2020.

Quoted in "The Growing Risk of Inadvertent Escalation Between Washington and Beijing," Lawfare, August 16, 2020.

Quoted in "ASEAN to stay united in peace," Malaya Business Insight, August 6, 2020.

Quoted in "The end of arms control as we know it," VOX.com, August 3, 2020.

Quoted in "China's Bhutan Gambit," The Diplomat, July 23, 2020.

Quoted in "Deadly Skirmish Was Part of a Larger Plan by China, India Believes," US News & World Report, July 17, 2020.

Quoted in "What the History of Modern Conquest Tells Us About China and India's Border Crisis," by Dan Altman (SSP Alum), War on the Rocks, July 9, 2020.

Quoted extensively in "History contradicts new Chinese claims over Bhutan's territory," India Today, July 6, 2020.

Quoted in "India's Pangong Pickle: New Delhi's Options After its Clash with China," by Vipin Narang and Christopher Clary. War on the Rocks, July 2, 2020.

Quoted in "Chinese Border Aggression Against India Likely Unrelated to Pandemic," The Diplomat, July 5, 2020.

Quoted in "China's Military Provokes Its Neighbors, But the Message is for The United States," New York Times, June 26, 2020.

Quoted in "Old Chinese maps validate Indian claims in Galwan Valley," India Today, June 23, 2020.

Quoted in "In faceoff with China, neither kinetic nor economic conflict is in India's best interests and government knows it all too well," FirstPost, June 23, 2020.

Quoted in "Chinese casualties at Galwan: What we know and what we don't," The Quint, June 23, 2020.

Quoted in "India has closed military gap with China along border," Hindustan Times, June 22, 2020.

Quoted in "Xi plays tough, but can China afford to make an enemy of India?" The Guardian, June 21, 2020.

Quoted in "China lays claim to entire Galwan Valley," The Hindu, June 19, 2020.

Quoted in "India-China Border Clash Shows Rising Risk in Beijing’s Territorial Push," Wall Street Journal, June 19, 2020.

Quoted in "'Insecure' China flexing its muscle against India?" The Straits Times, June 18, 2020.

Quoted in "Time for a China rethink," POLITICO, June 18, 2020.

Quoted in "Modi denies any Indian territory was lost in China clash," Washington Post, June 18, 2020.

Quoted in "A Skirmish in Galwan Valley," The Diplomat, June 17, 2020.

Quoted in "Ladakh face-off | India, China agree to de-escalate," The Hindu, June 17, 2020

Quoted in "India says 20 troops killed in deadliest clash with China in decades," The Japan Times, June 17, 2020.

Quoted in "India and China trade barbs after 'gang war' high in the Himalayas," Washington Post, June 17, 2020.

Quoted in "Experts Explain: What triggered China's line of actual control (LAC) moves," The India Express, June 16, 2020.

Quoted in "The China-India standoff and the myth of a new cold war," The Diplomat, June 13, 2020.

Quoted in "Philippines Backs Off Threat to Terminate Military Pact With U.S.," New York Times, June 2, 2020.

Quoted in "Military tensions mount on the India-China border," The Economist, May 29, 2020.

Quoted in "Flashpoints on the periphery: Understanding China's Neighborhood Opportunism," The Diplomat, May 28. 2020.

Quoted in "Far from being weakened by coronavirus, China pursues sovereignty claims on all fronts," Washington Post, May 27, 2020.

Interview: "Changing balance across LAC trigger for standoff, says China expert Taylor Fravel," The Hindu, May 27. 2020.

Fravel's Policy Report: U.S. Policy Towards the Disputes in the South China Sea since 1995 (March 2914) was cited in "China and America can compete and coexist," New York Times, February 3, 2020.

Fravel's book, Strong Borders, Secure Nation, was referenced in "Rapidly Rising Power China Has Been Put On Notice Over Contested Waters," The National Interest, February 1, 2020.

Quoted in "China's nuclear arsenal was strikingly modest, but that is changing," The Economist, November 21, 2019.

Quoted in "Coats does his job: scaring people," Boston Globe, February 3, 2019.

Interview by Ankit Panda on "How the People's Liberation Army Does Military Strategy," The Diplomat, January 30, 2019.

Quoted in "Buying time in the South China Sea," supchina.com, November 13, 2018.

Quoted in "How China plays into Trump's decision to pull out of INF treaty with Russia," Washington Post, October 23, 2018.

Quoted in "How China is using North Korea in its long game against America," South China Morning Post, June 16, 2018.

Quoted in "As Trump talks trade and nukes, China quietly tightens its grip on the South China Sea," CNBC, June 1, 2018.

Quoted in "US Military Renames Largest Area of Operations," Voice of America, May 30, 2018.

Quoted in "India's China reset: An unstable world brings Modi and Xi together, for now," hindustantimes.com, April 23, 2018.

Quoted in "The road out of Doklam," tribuneindia.com, April 2, 2018.

Quoted in "Doklam redux: Winter is coming," Business Standard, October 11, 2017.

Quoted in "Deals, drills and declarations on Asia's contested waters," The Straits Times, September 23, 2017.

Quoted in "Learning lessons, not scoring points, from the Doklam standoff," ASPI Strategist, September 7, 2017.

Quoted in "India posturing, post-Doklam, has a tragi-comic feel," Asia Times, September 6, 2017.

Quoted in "Distracted US leaves window of opportunity for Beijing to expand power in South China Sea," South China Morning Post, September 6, 2017

Quoted in "As World Watchs Kim, China Quietly Builds South China Sea Clout," bloomberg.com, September 5, 2017.

Quoted in "With ASEAN Toothless, The Region Needs a New Naval Pact," Asia Sentinal, September 4, 2017.

Quoted in "Deng Xiaoping-inspired peace plan for the South China Sea," Asia Times, August 1, 2017.

Quoted in "The bogey of 1962 must be erased," sundayguardianlive.com, July 29, 2017.

Quoted in "The World's Two Most Populous Countries Are Mad At Each Other And That's Bad," buzzfeed.com, July 27, 2017.

Quoted in "China and India locked In 'Eyeball-to-Eyeball' standoff," bloomberg.com, July 24, 2017.

Quoted in "Bhutan should solve India-China row," The Korea Times, July 24, 2017.

Quoted in "Doklam: Paths ahead for India and China," the interpreter, lowyinstitute.org, July 21, 2017.

Quoted in "Sikkim standoff: China's rapid escalation is limiting India's diplomatic options; can New Delhi hold its nerve?" firstpost.com, July 18, 2017.

Interview: "Why the India-China standoff is a game changer," rediff.com, July 13, 2017.

Quoted in "In the South China Sea, the U.S. is Struggling to Halt Beijing's Advance," foreignpolicy.com, May 25, 2017.

Quoted in "What might a conflict with North Korea look like?" Christian Science Monitor, April 14, 2017.

Quoted in "Xi Buys Time With Trump as Tensions Loom Over North Korea," bloomberg.com, April 9, 2017.

Quoted in "Dinner-time missile strike leaves China having to reassess Trump," The Guardian, April 7, 2017.

Quoted in "U.S. strike on Syria changes North Korea dynamic as Trump, Xi meet," Japan Times, April 7, 2017.

Quoted in "Message to N. Korea? Syria strike adds new element to Trump, Xi talks," FoxNews.com, April 7, 2017.

Quoted in "Three China store chains pull Japanese goods in radiation scare," Financial Times, March 21, 2017.

Quoted extensively, with Fiona Cunningham, in "Why U.S. Antimissile System in South Korea Worries China," New York TImes, March 11, 2017.

Quoted in "China's nuclear missile policy put under strain by US plan," CNBC, February 9, 2017.

Quoted in "Chinese ships cruise disputed Japanese islands: How will the US respond?" Christian Science Monitor, February 7, 2017.

Quoted in "Will Tillerson back up tough talk on the South China Sea?" DW.com, February 2, 2017.

Quoted in "China and the South China Sea: Can the US stop Chinese expansion?" CQ Researcher, January 20, 2017.

Quoted in "Xi Jinping Becomes an Unlikely Advocate of Free Trade at Davos," time.com, January 17, 2017.

Quoted in "Rex Tillerson's South China Sea Proposal Won't Work," The Diplomat, January 14, 2017.

Quoted in "For China, Tillerson's South China Sea remarks increase concerns over Trump," Christian Science Monitor, January 13, 2017.

Quoted in "No, China Did Not Target a US Carrier With Ballistic Missiles Last Summer," The Diplomat, January 5, 2017.

Quoted in "China to Return Seized Underwater Drone," Wall Street Journal, December 17, 2016.

Quoted in "U.S. Demands Return of Drone Seized by Chinese Warship," New York Times, December 16, 2016.

Quoted in "China flexes muscles: Western border command stages massive drill," Indiatoday.com," December 8, 2016.

Quoted in "Prominent retired Chinese colonel sees world heading for 'Amerexit'," The Globe and Mail, November 2, 2016.

Quoted in "Photos show China building hangars in West PH Sea," rappler.com, August 10, 2016.

Quoted in "New Photos Cast Doubt on China's Vow Not to Militarize Disputed Islands," New York Times, August 8, 2016.

Quoted in "Why did China fly 'combat patrols' over the Spratly Islands?" Christian Science Monitor, August 6, 2016.

Quoted in "Territorial dispute between China, American allies could hit Washingtonians in the wallet," komonews.com, July 28, 2016.

Quoted in "Will the U.S. Go to War with China Over the South China Sea?" moneymorning.com, July 13, 2016.

Quoted in "Beijing's South China Sea claims invalid: tribunal," AFP, July 13, 2016.

Quoted in "Tribunal rules against Chinese claims in South China Sea," USA Today, July 12, 2016.

Quoted in "The Hague tribunal: the hard work starts now," aie.org, July 12, 2016.

Quoted in "Hague rejects China's S. China Sea claim: how it could shape future disputes," Christian Science Monitor, July 12, 2016.

Quoted in "Disputing the South China Sea mythology," Business Standard, July 11, 2016.

Quoted in "Actually, China Is Not Building a Great Wall of Self-Isolation," thediplomat.com, June 1, 2016.

Quoted in "China, US Butt Heads Over Nuclear Talks," thediplomat.com, May 24, 2016.

Quoted in "Did China Really Test a MIRV-Capable ICBM Near the South China Sea?" thediplomat.com, April 23, 2016.

Quoted in "The new red army," India Today, February 11, 2016.

Quoted in "Chinese oil rig's return in South China Sea, off the coast of Vietnam, touches nerve in Hanoi," South China Morning Post, January 26, 2016

MIT News article: "M. Taylor Fravel advises U.S. government officials on South China Sea disputes," December 11, 2015.

Quoted in "Washington's Muddled Message in the South China Sea," foreignpolicy.com, November 5, 2015.

Quoted in "China Pushes Back Against U.S. Influence in the Seas of East Asia," New York Times, October 28, 2015.

Quoted in "After Years of Delays, U.S. Teams Seek to Recover WWII Remains in India," WUNC public radio, October 28, 2015.

Quoted in "U.S. dispatches warship to challenge China's artificial islands," foreignpolicy.com, October 26, 2015.

Quoted in "U.S. Patrols to Test China's Pledge on South China Sea Islands," Wall Street Journal, October 12, 2015.

Quoted in "President Xi: China Is Not Militarizing South China Sea," ValueWalk.com, September 30, 2015.

Quoted in "China's President Pledges No Militarization in Disputed Islands," Wall Street Journal, September 25, 2015.

Quoted in "Chinese Naval Ships Came Within 12 Nautical Miles of U.S. Coast," The Wall Street Journal, September 4, 2015.

Quoted in "China's anti-carrier missile 'trump card'," The Japan News, September 4, 2015.

Quoted in "Military Parade in China Gives Xi Jinping a Platform to Show Grip on Power," New York Times, September 3, 2015.

Quoted in "China Announces Cuts of 300,000 Troops at Military Parade Showing Its Might," New York Times, September 2, 2015.

Commentator in audio version: "If China militarizes the South China Sea, the US 'will have' to respond," PRI.org, May 27, 2015.

Quoted in "China's not building islands for mere economic gain," NPR's Marketplace, May 15, 2015.

Quoted in "U.S. Gambit Risks Conflict With China," Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2015.

Quoted in "Chinese and US navies in sporting confrontations," Agence France-Press (AFP), April 21, 2015.

Quoted in "China's New Airstrip in the South China Sea is Almost Completed," foreignpolicy.com, April 16, 2015.

Quoted in "Reefer Madness: Why is China on a Building Spree in the South China Sea?" foreignpolicy.com, February 20, 2015.